Jüdische Pflege- geschichte

Jewish Nursing History

Biographien und Institutionen in Frankfurt am Main

The May Family and their Foundations

Biographical data of Joseph and Hannchen May and their children Julius, Arthur and Rege

Photography: Street sign in Roedelheim in memory of Joseph and Hannchen May.
Street sign in Roedelheim in memory of Joseph and Hannchen May. © Edgar Bönisch

In Frankfurt´s district Rödelheim there is a street called “Josef-May-Strasse”. An additional text explains: “The May couple – founders of the former Rödelheim hospital 1847”. This hospital is still remembered by some Rödelheim citizens. Until 1893 it was located opposite May Street, where now the Social and Rehabilitation Center resides. After first researches in the institute for city history I needed to correct the additional sign. Mr and Mrs May were not the founders, but in their honor the hospital was founded by their children in 1874, not in 1847. In the first part of this article I introduce the May family, the spouses Joseph Hirsch and Hannchen May and three of their five children Julius, Arthur and Recha, who became active as foundress and founders. In the second part I go into the different foundations of the family members.

The May Family
Initially, the May family lived in Rödelheim, which had been part of the Grand Duchy of Darmstadt since 1806. In 1866 Rödelheim became Prussian, and was incorporated into the city Frankfurt am Main in 1910. Around 1814 the proportion of Rödelheim´s Jewish population was almost 30% (342 people). There are 376 Jewish people documented in Rödelheim for 1866, who represented 13.1% of the population.

Document: City of Frankfurt am Main civil status of the May couple, May 1872.
City of Frankfurt am Main civil status of the May couple, May 1872 © Institute for the History of Frankfurt am Main

Joseph Hirsch May was born around 1797; his wife Hannchen (Johannette) May, née Mayer, in May 1809 (cp. ISG Ffm: estate record 420, Documents of civil status). In 1825 Joseph Hirsch May, a “Jew under special protection”, applied to the Grand Ducal Hessian Government of the Province of Upper Hesse for the citizenship with the intention to be allowed to trade independently. Therefore he had to prove assets of 4,000 Guilders (Inferendum), in which he could include his wife´s funds. The law stated: “The higher authorities have decided that 4,000 Guilders, a Jew under special protection, who intends to become a citizen and to live on trade, has to prove may also include the funds of his bride” (HStAD Best. E3 A No. 26/31).
On January 22, 1826 the tradesman Joseph Hirsch May and Hannchen Mayer entered into marriage. Their first child, son Israel (later Julius), was born in the same year. In 1828 he was followed by Aaron (later Arthur). In 1831 their first daughter Röschen (Rosa) was born, followed by Rege (Rega / Recha) in 1835 and Jenny in 1843.
In 1856 the family moved from Rödelheim to Frankfurt (cp. ISG Ffm: estate record 420). Joseph Hirsch May died on February 25, 1865; his wife Hannchen on August 28, 1872 (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, sheet 47).

Document: Supplication of the protected Jew Joseph Hirsch May in Rödelheim to be granted citizienship.
Supplication of the protected Jew Joseph Hirsch May in Rödelheim to be granted citizienship (HStAD[state archive of Hesse in Darmstadt] Best E 3 A Nr. 26/31) © Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt (Best. E 3 A Nr. 26/31)

According to his testament, Julius (Israel) May (cp. ISG Ffm: magistrate records V 465; ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, sheet 47) was born in Rödelheim on November 11, 1826. Particularly worth mentioning is that Julius May received the citizenship of California in the United States on November 2, 1859. Though another source mentions his emigration to America in 1866 (cp. HStAD Best. R 21 B No. proof 1866), his stay in America in 1859 seems to be likely due to the fact that he got married in Belgium in 1864. In 1865 Israel May had his name changed into Julius May (cp. HStAD Best. G 15 Friedberg No. I 61).
The time Julius May spent in America cannot be reconstructed, however, on the basis of the following text conjectures can be made.
After only a few Jewish people from Central Europe emigrated to America in the 18th century, the number of Jewish residents in the United States increased from about 15,000 to about 250,000 between 1840 and 1880 (cp. Brunner 2009: 55). “A large part came from villages and smaller cities in Swabia, Bavaria, Hesse, Baden and Westphalia” (Brunner 2009: 55). In Germany Jews suffered from discrimination; the laws regulating the number of Jews who were allowed to be legal residents of any location (Matrikelgesetz) were directed against the free choice of occupation and residence. Economic, as well as political and social, discrimination stimulated the desire to emigrate. Many of the emigrating Jews were young, unmarried and poor. Often it was the first born son of a family who was sent traveling. Also young Jewish families often emigrated, since the number of Jewish marriages was limited by the authorities. In addition to settlements in New York and Chicago many Jews also settled in the “Southern states and the pacific West” (cp. Brunner 2009: 56). Julius May came from a rich family, but was the first born son. Whether it was the gold fever in the middle of the 19th century which called him to California, to San Francisco around 1849, or the first Jewish communities that were formed in the West during this time, we do not know.
On November 2, 1864 Julius May married Fanny Angela Oppenheim (1841-1918) in Belgium, who was the daughter of Joseph Oppenheim. Their children were Rose Eugenie, Joseph Henry, Adolphe Maurice and Paul Hermann (cp. magistrate records V 465).


Not much is known about the life of Julius May and his family in Belgium. The following is described in literature regarding the situation he and other Jewish people from Frankfurt faced in Belgium in the 19th century: “Migrants from Frankfurt am Main belonged to the first permanent residents in Belgium in the late 18th century. The family pioneer Adolphe Oppenheim settled in Brussels in 1807/1808. His brother Joseph [Julius May´s father in law], other siblings and close relatives followed from 1814” (Kasper-Holtkotte 2003: 165). One of the main reasons for migrating from Frankfurt to Belgium was Jewish people being rejected by Frankfurt´s population, and a change of the legal situation seemed to be hopelessness. A complaint of the Israelite Singer states that “the hate against Jewish people here in Frankfurt (…) is extremely fierce” and includes all classes of society (Singer). An anti-Semitic climax was reached with the decree of the “New Saturation”: It reinforced the lawlessness of Jewish people including the deprivation of civil rights (cp. Kasper-Holtkotte 2003: 219).
Julius May died in Ixelles near Brussels in 1890. He appointed his “nephew and future son-in-law” Dr. Leo Errera, his wife Fanny Angela and her brother Paul Moise Oppenheim as managers of his American assets (magistrate records V 465).

The second eldest son of Joseph and Hannchen May and brother of Julius was Arthur (Aaron) May (September 8, 1828 – May 30, 1885). He married Pauline Fuld (July 26, 1833 – April 14, 1870) on February 14, 1855 (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, sheet 47). Their children were Julie Mathilde, Victor, Rosa and Joseph Arthur.
Following the example of his parents, Arthur May and his fiancé succeeded in keeping their civil and trade rights in Frankfurt by proving assets to the amount of 20,000 Guilders (cp. ISG Ffm: Senate Supplication 631/14). On November 6, 1854 a receipt was issued for Arthur May that he had paid 918 Guilders and 11 kreutzer in total for “civil or suit money” plus statutory charges.
The move from Rödelheim to Frankfurt is proved by the address book of the City of Frankfurt from 1855, where the merchant Aaron [sic] May is listed under his private and business address at 1 Friedberger Anlage (cp. state and address book of the Free City of Frankfurt 1855).Even before his brother, Aaron May applied for his name being changed into Arthur May (cp. ISG Ffm: Senate Supplication 631/14).

Photography: Residential and business house belonging to Arthur May and Rege Seligstein (center of picture, East End Synagogue in the background).
Residential and business house belonging to Arthur May and Rege Seligstein (center of picture, East End Synagogue in the background) © Institute for the History of Frankfurt am Main

In accordance with Frankfurt´s address book Arthur´s father, Joseph Hirsch May, was registered as the attorney of the business at 1 Friedberger Anlage in 1865. Arthur´s sister Rege Seligstein, who had participated in the financing of the Joseph and Hannchen May Foundation, probably lived under the same address on the second floor. Rege´s husband, Samuel, was listed as the co-owner of a branch at 26 Vilbeler Strasse, which seemed to have been additionally bought.
By looking at the complaint Aaron May submitted to the financial administration in 1860 it is possible to get an idea of the products the May family traded with in its commission and freight forwarding business. The complaint was about oats Arthur May had resold on account of the War Ministry. He requested the reimbursement of Accife (consumption tax) on oats by the financial administration, but was unsuccessful (cp. ISG Ffm: Senate Supplication 631/14).
Arthur and Pauline May both died in Frankfurt: Arthur died on May 30, 1885 and Pauline on April 14, 1870 (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, sheet 47). Currently, not much is known about the life of the daughters of Joseph Hirsch May and Hannchen May, Röschen, Rege and Jenny.
Let us now look at the foundations that were set up by members of the May family.

The Josef and Hannchen May Foundation for Sick and Needy People

Sign bearing the name of the old hospital of the Joseph and Hannchen May’schen Stitung in Roedelheim.
Sign bearing the name of the old hospital of the Joseph and Hannchen May’schen Stitung in Roedelheim. © Edgar Bönisch

The above-mentioned street sign refers to this foundation. Rödelheim´s first almshouse and infirmary was founded by the sons of Josef and Hannchen May, Julius and Arthur in honor of their parents. They donated “the then so-called Little Hospital without any proportions of public funds […] ” to the City of Rödelheim (Schembs 2007: 18). Their sister Recha and her husband Samuel contributed to the maintenance of the house. It was officially opened in 1874.
A nameplate, which probably adorned the old hospital, still exists in the garden of the Social and Rehabilitation Center West which was later built there. Reference is made to two detailed articles about the foundation and the building and its residents.

Foundations of Julius May (1826-1890)
Julius May, the eldest son of Josef and Hannchen May, determined in his will dated June 4, 1885 that his heirs shall invest “about 35,000 Marks as Julius May Foundation” (ISG Ffm: magistrate records V 465, attachment X). The resulting dependent foundation under the administration of the Philanthropin, one of the schools of the Jewish community, aimed at improving and enhancing the lessons, the locations and the equipment of the Philanthropin and granting scholarships to talented and needy Jewish children (cp. Schiebler 1988: 28). When the funds of the foundation were not paid to the Philanthropin in 1940, the executive board contacted the city council. Investigations, in which also the Gestapo was involved, were carried out. It was established that the foundation assets were RM 8,744.90 and deposited with the J. Dreyfuss bank. When the Dreyfuss-bank had been “aryanized” and liquidated, the money had flowed to various banks, which was why the whereabouts of the single amount were no longer traceable. This was given as a reason for the missing payments (cp. ISG Ffm: magistrate record V 465, Foundation Department 312).
In accordance with the testament two further foundations were set up (cp. Schiebler 1988: 28).
1) Christian or non-denominational poor people from Rödelheim shall be supported with 12,000 Marks. Due to the inflation the foundation amount managed by the finance administration of the City of Frankfurt dwindled down to RM 1,518 until 1929 and was incorporated into the poor relief fonds of the City of Frankfurt.
2) Julius May donated 12,000 Marks to the Joseph and Hannchen May Foundation for the distribution to poor Jewish people.
The Foundation Department of the legal office tried to clarify the respective status of the different May Foundations in a letter addressed to the Main Office of Administration of the City of Frankfurt from March 1941.
Assuming that “the different May Foundations […] had not always been called the same, which resulted in some confusion,” (ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 312) it was concluded that the Joseph and Hannchen May Foundation was a donation in legal terms. The legal office did not consider the amount of 12,000 Marks given to the Joseph and Hannchen May Foundation by Julius May for the distribution to poor Jewish people (see point 2 above) as a foundation, but as a donation to the Municipality of Rödelheim from 1891. Regardless of what was legally correct, it was surely easier to “aryanize” the endowments.

Foundations of Arthur May (1828-1885)
In accordance with his testament Arthur May put capital to the amount of 60,000 Marks into the “Arthur May Foundation for the Support of Poor People” in 1885 (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, magistrate records V 456/1). Regardless of religious affiliation amounts shall be paid to individuals who “did not receive any benefits from public funds” (Schiebler 1988: 114). The often informal requests and corresponding receipts can be found in the institute for city history in Frankfurt am Main. Initially, the support amounted to five or ten Marks, later also 20, 30 or 100 Marks (cp. ISG Ffm: magistrate records V 456/2).

Document: Arthur May’sche Stiftung (Charitable organization) to support the timid poor / an application for support and confirmation of receipt of the application.
Arthur May’sche Stiftung (Charitable organization) to support the timid poor / an application for support and confirmation of receipt of the application © Institute for the History of Frankfurt am Main

The executive board of the Arthur May Foundation finally consisted of the factory owner Julius Bloch, the medical officer Dr. Albert Ettlinger, the mayor Dr. Eduard Gräf and the city councilors Heil and Weidner (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, sheet 3). The last mentioned gentlemen probably were the city councilors Gerhard Heil and Wilhelm Weidner. The Arthur May Foundation was dissolved by an order of the district president in Wiesbaden on January 3, 1939. The foundation assets of RM 22,000 were to be transferred to the General Welfare Foundation (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 310, sheet 87). The explanatory memorandum states: “For the administration of the foundation an executive board of five people was appointed in the deed stipulated by the magistrate on January 8, 1886, of which two had to be of Jewish faith. As investigations with the registration office revealed, the two Jewish members last appointed to the board last, are staying abroad. The medical officer Dr. Albert Ettlinger emigrated to The Netherlands on September 22, 1938. The factory director Julius Bloch is still registered here, but is staying abroad with unknown residence. The remaining three [sic] members of the foundation executive board have made the enclosed decision. In accordance with the provisions for the administration of the foundation, which have been enacted by the magistrate, a quorum is constituted by the presence of three members so that a valid [sic] decision of the executive board exists” (ibid. sheet 85).
In accordance with his testament Arthur May donated a further 10,000 Marks to the Joseph and Hannchen May Foundation for the distribution of meat and sacrificial bread to poor Rödelheim Jewish people. This amount was also called a donation for the Easter feeding of poor Jewish people in May 1886 (cp. ISG Ffm: Foundation Department 312).With its foundations the May family lines up with many other foundresses and founders in Frankfurt am Main, completely committed to the principle of justice and charity (tzedakah).


Edgar Bönisch, 2014

Unpublished Sources
ISG Ffm: Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt am Main:

Stiftungsabteilung 310. Arthur MAYsche Stiftung von 1884/86. Für
verschämte Arme. 1885-1886, 1930-1939

Stiftungsabteilung 312. Julius MAYsche Stiftung von 1885. Zur Förderung
des Unterrichts am Philanthropin. 1885, 1920-1943

Magistratsakten V 456/1 Arthur May’sche Stiftung 1885-1930 V. 12 No. 64

Magistratsakten V 456/2 Arthur May’sche Stiftung ad. V. 12 No. 64

Magistratsakten V 465 Julius-Maysche Stiftung, 1890

Nachlassakten 420 May, Hannchen geb. Mayer. Witwe des Handelsmanns
Joseph Hirsch May aus Rödelheim, 1872

Senatssuplikationen 631/14

Internet sources
HStAD: Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt (Aufruf 18.03.2013):

HStAD Best. E 3 A Nr. 26/31: Gesetzgebung Hessen-Darmstadt.
http://www.hadis.hessen.de/scripts/HADIS.DLL/home?SID=C124-361E829-C2ADC&PID=399A

HStAD Best. R 21 B Nr. Nachweis 1866 Auswandererkartei Walter Möller.
http://www.hadis.hessen.de/scripts/HADIS.DLL/home?SID=B286-30D205A-C1DD0&PID=E154

HStAD Best. G 15 Friedberg Nr. I 61 Kreisamt Friedberg
http://www.hadis.hessen.de/scripts/HADIS.DLL/ home?SID=B286-30D205A-C1DD0&PID=51C2

Geni http://www.geni.com/people/Julius-May/6000000018619127741 (Aufruf 14.03.2013)

Literature

Brunner, Bernd 2009: Nach Amerika. Die Geschichte der deutschen Auswanderung. München

Kasper-Holtkotte, Cilli 2003: Im Westen Neues. Migration und ihre Folgen. Deutsche Juden als Pioniere jüdischen Lebens in Belgien, 18./19. Jahrhundert. Leiden, Boston

Singer: Klageschrift des Israeliten Singer zu Paris, hier erlittener Unbillden btr. (StA Ffm Ugb D56 Judenschaft Nr. 6, zitiert nach Kasper-Holtkotte 2003: 219

Schembs, Hans-Otto 2007: Jüdische Mäzene und Stifter in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main

Schiebler, Gerhard 1988: Jüdische Stiftungen in Frankfurt am Main. Stiftungen, Schenkungen, Organisationen und Vereine mit Kurzbiographien jüdischer Bürger. Frankfurt a. M.

Staats- und Adress-Handbuch der freien Stadt Frankfurt 117. Jahrg. 1855. Frankfurt a. M.

Karl Falkenstein

Resident of the Henry and Emma Budge Home for single old people

It is thanks to the list of former residents of the former Budge Home, which could be found again by Volker Hütte on behalf of the Budge Foundation (cp. Hütte / Institute for City History), that Karl Falkenstein´s name is not forgotten. Karl Falkenstein was one of 23 residents of Jewish faith who was the victim of the Nazi terrorism and for whom a memorial in front of the new Budge Home at 279 Wilhelmshöher Strasse has been set up since November 9, 2011.

Photography: Karl Falkenstein (undated, probably around 1920).
Karl Falkenstein (undated, probably around 1920), with kind permission of Yad Vashem

Karl Falkenstein was born the son of Abraham and Betty Falkenstein in Frankfurt am Main on Febrary 12, 1857 (cp. Federal Archive and Yad Vashem).
Around 1869 his father, Abraham Falkenstein, was employed as a “treasury servant” with Frankfurt´s Bank and lived at 11 Jewish Street.
It can be proved that Abraham Falkenstein was a treasury servant with the Jewish health insurance for women around 1880. At the same time he was the “funeral commissioner” of the Jewish community. The tasks of a funeral commissioner can be compared with the ones of a mortician today, though he probably was not an independent businessman, but an employee of the community. At this time, around 1880, he lived, certainly together with his family, at 30 Jewish Market and later 12 Börneplatz. From 1890 Abraham Falkenstein was a man of independent means and lived on the ground floor at 18 Hanauer Landstrasse, subsequently on the second floor at 10 Sandweg. From 1895 he was no longer registered in Frankfurt´s address books; he had probably died.
In 1885 his son Karl Frankenstein, about whom this article is written, appeared for the first time at 30 Jewish Market in the address books. Karl was married to Lea Falkenstein, née Hermann, who was born on April 14, 1862 (cp. Yad Vashem). However, we do not know when exactly they entered into marriage. For the time being nothing is known about their children. The granddaughter of Lea and Karl Falkenstein stored a commemorative sheet for her grandfather at the Holocaust Memorial Yad Vashem. Also in Yad Vashem a commemorative sheet exists for the sister of the granddaughter who was killed in a submarine attack on a ship with Jewish juveniles in 1943.

Trademark of the company Stern & Co. Label names were ”Heather”, “Cornflower” or “Rheingold”.
Trademark of the company Stern & Co. Label names were ”Heather”, “Cornflower” or “Rheingold”. From: Schmidt, Hans-Heinrich: Encyclopedia of the German watch industry, 1850-1980. Villingen-Schwenningen, 2005

In 1885 Karl (Carl) is registered as the co-owner of the Sigmund Stern & Co Company. This company was a “branch of the Swiss watch factory Stern in Solothurn and manufacturer of templet-pocket watches and active in the watch trade” (Schmidt 2005). One referred to watches which were cheap in production and manufactured from standardized parts as templet watches. Brand names of the Stern Company were “Erika”, “Kornblume” [cornflower] or “Rheingold” [Rhinegold] (cp. Schmidt 2005). The Stern & Co Company resided on the third floor at 69 Zeil, where also its warehouse was located. Along with Karl Falkenstein there were two further owners: Sigmund Stern and Michael Bamberger.
Karl Falkenstein moved privately several times: in 1886 to 3 Schillerstrasse, from 1887 to 60 Fichardstrasse, third floor. In 1892 he moved to 13 Kaiserstrasse, second floor, where he first opened his own watch shop: “Karl Falkenstein Pocket Watches, Pocket Watches en gros”. A trademark that can be attributed to him is called “Future Karl Falkenstein”. In 1897 the owner and his business moved into the neighboring house at Kaiserstrasse 11, second floor, where they stayed until 1914.

Photography: Frankfurt am Main: View from Kaiserplatz in the Kaiserstrasse toward the north-east in the direction of Rossmarkt (Junghaendel 1898). House at Kaiserstrasse 11.
Frankfurt am Main: View from Kaiserplatz in the Kaiserstrasse toward the north-east in the direction of Rossmarkt (Junghaendel 1898). House at Kaiserstrasse 11 © Max Junghändel

In 1915 you find a proof of Karl Falkenstein and his watch shop at 141 Oestliche [sic] Fürstenbergerstrasse. Not later than one year later he gave up his business and lived as a man of independent weath under the same address from 1916. In 1929 he moved to 12 Wöhlerstrasse, ground floor, a tenement, where also other pensioners resided. A few years later in 1936 Hilde Meyerowitz organized the establishment of a retirement home at 6 Wöhlerstrasse for the “All-German Association of Jewish Provincial Community Organizations” and the Provincial Association of Jewish Welfare. Later the house numbers 8 and 13 were affiliated.
In 1936 Karl Falkenstein moved into a rear building on Niddagaustrasse. After having resided at 18 Rechneigrabenstrasse – Mr and Mrs Falkenstein probably lived here in a retirement home – he and Lea moved into the Henry and Emma Budge Home for single old people at 9 Edingerweg in July 1937. Here Mrs Falkenstein died on June 2, 1938. On February 2, 1939 Mr Falkenstein left the Budge Home before the last Jewish residents had to leave it on April 1, 1939. He then found accommodation at the nurses´ residence of the Association for Jewish Nurses of Frankfurt am Main at 85 Bornheimer Landwehr (cp. “Hausstandsbuch 665:60” [record kept by the local police stations that listed Frankfurt´s residents sorted by street and house number]). Then he must have lived at 11 Beethovenstrasse, which is listed in the “Hausstandsbuch” of the hospital of the Jewish community. Later he used to live there from October 31, 1941 (cp. “Hausstandsbuch” 686/687). The circumstances in the hospital Karl Falkenstein experienced, aged 84 now, were described by the nurse Thea Höchster in a letter at the end of October 1941: “We have a lot to do here in hospital. All beds are occupied, and some beds even have been additionally pushed into the rooms. Our poor people are not up to these difficult days. How many children have to leave their homes and good old parents at this time? As long as we can and may care for them, they cope with their fate easier. In addition to their physical infirmity they are definitely suffering also emotionally so that it is for us a sad workplace. Our mood is depressed, as many of our best friends are leaving” (Thea Höchster, quoted by Kingreen 1999a: 147).
Karl Falkenstein was “evacuated” from the hospital at 36 Gagernstrasse by the Gestapo [sic] on August 18, 1942 (cp. “Hausstandsbuch” 687: 82. At the age of 85 years he was sent with the seventh large deportation from Frankfurt with transport XII/1, train Da503, from Frankfurt am Main to Theresienstadt transit and concentration camp (cp. Yad Vashem; Kárný 2000).
In this deportation, which affected 1,020 people, 678 patients from Frankfurt´s retirement homes were carried away. According to a list of “Home Purchase Contracts because of Change of Residence on August 18, 1942” most of the displaced people were wealthy. The state could take expropriated funds from 270 persons to the amount of six million Reichmarks by these contracts (cp. Kingreen 1999b: 376). In accordance with the Compensation Act, Karl Falkenstein had to make a compulsory payment in the course of the “seizure of Jewish assets” to the amount of 4,750.77 Reichmarks and further 8,633 Reichmarks for the forced conclusion of a “Home Purchase Contract” (cp. Museum Jewish Street Frankfurt am Main). These contracts led old people to believe that their retirement in a retirement home would be financed (cp. Museum Jewish Street Frankfurt am Main). A pattern of such a contract is shown here.

Document: "Heimeinkaufvertrag" Theresienstadt.
„Heimeinkaufvertrag“ Theresienstadt. Additional information

Rosa Natt-Fuchs, aged 78, who came from the retirement home at 25 Niedenau and was deported in the same train as Karl Falkenstein, described the order of events in a farewell letter on Thursday 13, August 1942. She wrote she had to be ready on Saturday evening and to leave on Sunday. After an overnight stay in Rechneigraben [probably the retirement home there which served as collection center] she was to go to Theresienstadt on Monday (cp. Rosa Natt-Fuchs by Kingreen 1999b: 376). A witness to the deportation preparations was Tilly Cahn who wrote in her diary on Sunday August 16, 1942: “Sunday she was first seen by Max, then two times by me [probably the mother of husband Max L. Cahn is meant] in the retirement home [Feuerbachtstrasse 14, corner Guiollettstrasse], a heartbreaking tragedy, all the old, mainly infirm people, dressed three times, one suitcase, one lunchbox… Sunday afternoon the old people were set on trucks or wagons, one after the other, and partly taken to the collection center on Hermesweg or to the retirement home on Rechneigraben with their luggage. […] There they slept two nights, in very crowded conditions, on mattresses before they were prepared for transportation by the Gestapo. We were not allowed to see them again, although I tried yesterday by speaking to the SS at the gate. […] Now, on Tuesday, August 18 between 5-6 p.m. the train to Theresienstadt is probably leaving. I am feeling terrible and it will not let me go… Also patients of the infirmary ward of the hospital, who are severely ill came with them” (Cahn 1999: 218 et seq.). One of the patients from hospital was Karl Falkenstein.
The deportation from August 18, 1942 reached Theresienstadt on August 19, 1942.
Two years later, on July 21, 1944, Rabbi Leopold Neuhaus, who was also interned in Theresienstadt, compiled statistics of these people deported from Frankfurt. In accordance with these statistics there were 44 persons of originally 1,020 deported people still living in Theresienstadt. “During the last two years 588 people died of starvation, exhaustion and disease, 328 people were deported to the extermination camps in Treblinka and Auschwitz. Only 18 individuals of the more than 1,000 people deported from Frankfurt experienced the liberation.” (Report of Theresienstadt´s Initiative in Prague, quoted by Kingreen 1999b: 377).
Karl Falkenstein died in Theresienstadt on September 24, 1942 (cp. memorial book, Koblenz Federal Archive).

Edgar Bönisch, 2013
(Translated by Yvonne Ford)

Literature

Bundesarchiv: Das Gedenkbuch des Bundesarchivs für die Opfer der nationalsozialistischen Judenverfolgung in Deutschland (1933-1945). Koblenz. http://www.bundesarchiv.de/gedenkbuch/ (27.6.2013)

Adressbücher, Frankfurt a. M.:
Adress-Buch von Frankfurt a. M., Bockenheim, Homburg v. d. H., Offenbach a. M., Cronberg, Eschersheim, Hausen, Heddernheim, Königstein, Neu-Isenburg, Niederrad, Oberrad und Rödelheim. Frankfurt am Main. 1887-1894
Neues Adressbuch für Frankfurt am Main und Umgebung. Frankfurt a. M. 1904
Adressbuch für Frankfurt am Main und Umgebung. Frankfurt a. M. 1905-1924
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Cahn, Peter 1999: Tagebuchaufzeichnungen und Briefe von Max L. Cahn und Tilly Cahn aus den Jahren 1933-1943. In: Dieter Rebentisch (Hg.): Archiv für Frankfurts Geschichte und Kunst 65. S. 182-221

Hausstandsbuch 655: Bornheimer Landwehr 85. Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt am Main

Hausstandsbuch 686/687: Gagernstraße 36, Krankenhaus der Israelitischen Gemeinde. Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt am Main

Hütte, Volker/Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt am Main: Sondersammlung Einzelstücke S4c 329

Junghändel, Max: Frankfurt am Main. Aufnahmen nach der Natur von Max Junghändel. Frankfurt am Main. 1898. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frankfurt_Am_Main-Max_Junghaendel-FFMANDN-16-Kaiserstrasse.jpg (3.7.2013)

Kárný, Miroslav (Hrsg.): Theresienstädter Gedenkbuch: die Opfer der Judentransporte aus Deutschland nach Theresienstadt 1942 – 1945 / Institut Theresienstädter Initiative. Prag. 2000

Kingreen, Monica 1999a: Zuflucht in Frankfurt. Zuzug hessischer Landjuden und städtische antijüdische Politik. In: Monica Kingreen (Hg.): „Nach der Kristallnacht“. Jüdisches Leben und antijüdische Politik in Frankfurt am Main 1938-1945. Frankfurt am Main, New York. S. 119-155

Kingreen, Monica 1999b: Gewaltsam verschleppt aus Frankfurt. Die Deportationen der Juden in den Jahren 1941-1945. In: Monica Kingreen (Hg.): „Nach der Kristallnacht“. Jüdisches Leben und antijüdische Politik in Frankfurt am Main 1938-1945. Frankfurt am Main, New York. S. 357-402

Kommission zur Erforschung der Geschichte der Frankfurter Juden (Hg.) 1963: Dokumente zur Geschichte der Frankfurter Juden 1933-1945. Frankfurt am Main

Museum Judengasse Frankfurt am Main: Datenbank im Museum

Office Polytechnique d’Édition et de Publicité: Archives de l’Horlogerie, Marques de Fabrique. Volume III. Bern. 1902

Schmidt, Hans-Heinrich: Lexikon der deutschen Uhrenindustrie 1850 – 1980: Firmenadressen, Fertigungsprogramm, Firmenzeichen, Markennamen, Firmengeschichten. Villingen-Schwenningen. 2005

Yad Vashem: http://db.yadvashem.org/names/nameDetails.html?itemId=1035608&language=de (1.7.2013)